Failure Prediction for Composite Materials with Generalized Standard Models

2019-10-17T19:15:39Z (GMT) by Zhenyuan Gao
Despite the advances of analytical and numerical methods for composite materials, it is still challenging to predict the onset and evolution of their different failure mechanisms. Because most failure mechanisms are irreversible processes in thermodynamics, it is beneficial to model them within a unified thermodynamic framework. Noting the advantages of so-called generalized standard models (GSMs) in this regard, the objective of this work is to formulate constitutive models for several main failure mechanisms: brittle fracture, interlaminar delamination, and fatigue behavior for both continuum damage and delamination, in a generalized standard manner.

For brittle fracture, the numerical difficulties caused by damage and strain localization in traditional finite element analysis will be addressed and overcome. A nonlocal damage model utilizing an integral-type regularization technique will be derived based on a recently developed ``local'' continuum damage model. The objective is to make this model not only rigorously handle brittle fracture, but also incorporate common damage behavior such as damage anisotropy, distinct tensile and compressive damage behavior, and damage deactivation. A fully explicit integration scheme for the present model will be developed and implemented.

For fatigue continuum damage, a viscodamage model, which can handle frequently observed brittle damage phenomena, is developed to produce stress-dependent fatigue damage evolution. The governing equation for damage evolution is derived using an incremental method. A class of closed-form incremental constitutive relations is derived.

For interlaminar delamination, a cohesive zone model (CZM) will be proposed. Focus is placed on making the associated cohesive elements capable of displaying experimental critical energy release rate--mode mixture ratio relationships. To achieve this goal, each cohesive element is idealized as a deformable string exhibiting path dependent damage behavior. A damage model having a path dependence function will be developed, which will be constructed such that each cohesive element can exhibit designated, possibly sophisticated mixed-mode behavior. The rate form of the cohesive law will be subsequently derived.

Finally, a CZM for interlaminar fatigue, capable of handling brittle damage behavior, is developed to produce realistic interlaminar crack propagation under high-cycle fatigue. An implicit integration scheme, which can handle complex separation paths and mixed-mode delamination, is developed. Many numerical examples will be utilized to clearly demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed nonlocal damage model, continuum fatigue damage model, and CZMs for quasi-static and fatigue delamination.