The Effect of Herbicide Respray Treatments and Timings on Regrowth of Four Weed Species
Control of weeds that have survived a postemergence (POST) herbicide often need to be controlled in order to prevent seed production and interference with crops. The most efficacious herbicides and timings used for respray applications has not been determined in many problematic weed species. Previous research has demonstrated that weeds clipped to simulate a failed herbicide application responded differently to herbicide applications to regrowth based on herbicide used and weed species. Other research is conflicting as to the optimum timing of an herbicide respray application with various herbicides. Gaining a better understanding of how to maximize respray herbicide performance will help growers and land managers to preserve crop yield and prevent weed seed production in the event of POST contact herbicide failure. The objectives of this research were to determine the optimum respray herbicide and timing combinations for control of four problematic weed species in the midwestern United States that have survived an application of either glufosinate or fomesafen: waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J. D. Sauer], Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watts), giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.), and horseweed (Erigeron canadensis L). Through a series of field and greenhouse experiments we determined that respray herbicide, respray application timing, initial herbicide, and level of injury from the initial application influence efficacy of the respray herbicide in a species-specific manner. Waterhemp regrowth following a failed glufosinate application was controlled most effectively by applying glufosinate or fomesafen 7 to 11 days after initial treatment. When following fomesafen, applications of 2,4-D 3-7 days after initial treatment or glufosinate 7 to11 days after initial treatment were most effective. Control of Palmer amaranth regrowth following either initial herbicide is best achieved with respray applications of glufosinate, fomesafen, or 2,4-D applied no later than 7 days after initial treatment. The best strategy to control giant ragweed regrowth following a failed fomesafen applications is to apply 2,4-D, dicamba, fomesafen, or glufosinate at any timing between 3 and 11 days after initial treatment. Efficacy of the respray glufosinate application was maximized when applied 11 days after the initial application rather than 3 days after initial application. Horseweed regrowth was best controlled by 2,4-D, dicamba, or glufosinate applied at any timing between 3 and 11 days after the initial application. Where injury from the initial herbicide application is high, there were fewer differences among herbicide treatments and treatment timings. A greenhouse bioassay revealed that as waterhemp injury from an initial glufosinate application increases, control with a respray herbicide also increases. Therefore, complete control of weed regrowth is achieved more easily with increasing injury from the initial application. This research suggests that timing of herbicide respray applications is more urgent than previously thought, so scouting must be done within days of a contact herbicide application to ensure adequate control.