Analysis of Droplet Impact on a Liquid Pool
Secondary atomization is very important in applications like IC engine and aircraft engine performance, agricultural sprays, and inkjet printing to name a few. In case of IC engines and aircraft engines, a good understanding of the modes of secondary atomization and the resultant drop size can contribute to improving the fuel injection and hence the efficiency of the engine. Similarly, with the help of appropriate secondary atomization desired agro-spray quality, ink usage and print quality can be achieved which would optimize the usage of chemicals and ink respectively and avoid any harmful effects on the environment.
One of the reasons for secondary atomization that occurs very often in most of the spray applications is the drop impact on a solid or liquid surface. Especially it is cardinal to understand the impact of a drop on a liquid film since even in case of impact of liquid drops on a solid surface ultimately the drops that are injected at a later time are going have a target surface as a thin liquid film on the solid base due to the accumulation of the previously injected drops. Analysis of drop impact on a liquid film with non-dimensional thickness ranging from 0.1 to 1 has been done thoroughly before (Cossali et al., 2004, Vander Waal et al., 2006, Moreira et al., 2010), however, analysis of drop impact on a liquid film with non-dimensional thickness greater than 1 is still in a rudimentary stage. This work focuses on determining the probability density functions for the secondary drop sizes for drops produced in case of drop impact on a liquid film while varying the h/d ratio beyond 1. The experimental set-up used to study drop impact includes a droplet generator and DIH system as mentioned in, Yao et al. (2017). The DIH set-up includes a CW laser, spatial filter, beam expander and a collimator as adapted from Guildenbecher et al. (2016). The height of drop impact is varied to vary the impact We, by adjusting the syringe height. Three fluids- DI-Water, ethanol and glycerol are tested for examining the effect of viscosity on the resultant drop sizes. Results are plotted with respect to viscosity, impact We and the non-dimensional film thickness, as the fragmentation of drops is directly associated to these parameters. Results indicate that majority of the secondary droplets lie in the size range of 25 µm to 50 µm. It is also observed that the tendency of secondary atomization from crown splashing increases with the increase in We and decreases with increase in Oh.