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## Contributions to Rough Paths and Stochastic PDEs

Probability theory is the study of random phenomena. Many dynamical systems with random influence, in nature or artificial complex systems, are better modeled by equations incorporating the intrinsic stochasticity involved. In probability theory, stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) generalize partial differential equations through random force terms and coefficients, while stochastic differential equations (SDEs) generalize ordinary differential equations. They are both abound in models involving Brownian motion throughout science, engineering and economics. However, Brownian motion is just one example of a random noisy input. The goal of this thesis is to make contributions in the study and applications of stochastic dynamical systems involving a wider variety of stochastic processes and noises. This is achieved by considering different models arising out of applications in thermal engineering, population dynamics and mathematical finance.

1. Power-type non-linearities in SDEs with rough noise: We consider a noisy differential equation driven by a rough noise that could be a fractional Brownian motion, a generalization of Brownian motion, while the equation's coefficient behaves like a power function. These coefficients are interesting because of their relation to classical population dynamics models, while their analysis is particularly challenging because of the intrinsic singularities. Two different methods are used to construct solutions: (i) In the one-dimensional case, a well-known transformation is used; (ii) For multidimensional situations, we find and quantify an improved regularity structure of the solution as it approaches the origin. Our research is the first successful analysis of the system described under a truly rough noise context. We find that the system is well-defined and yields non-unique solutions. In addition, the solutions possess the same roughness as that of the noise.

2. Parabolic Anderson model in rough environment: The parabolic Anderson model is one of the most interesting and challenging SPDEs used to model varied physical phenomena. Its original motivation involved bound states for electrons in crystals with impurities. It also provides a model for the growth of magnetic field in young stars and has an interpretation as a population growth model. The model can be expressed as a stochastic heat equation with additional multiplicative noise. This noise is traditionally a generalized derivative of Brownian motion. Here we consider a one dimensional parabolic Anderson model which is continuous in space and includes a more general rough noise. We first show that the equation admits a solution and that it is unique under some regularity assumptions on the initial condition. In addition, we show that it can be represented using the Feynman-Kac formula, thus providing a connection with the SPDE and a stochastic process, in this case a Brownian motion. The bulk of our study is devoted to explore the large time behavior of the solution, and we provide an explicit formula for the asymptotic behavior of the logarithm of the solution.

3. Heat conduction in semiconductors: Standard heat flow, at a macroscopic level, is modeled by the random erratic movements of Brownian motions starting at the source of heat. However, this diffusive nature of heat flow predicted by Brownian motion is not observed in certain materials (semiconductors, dielectric solids) over short length and time scales. The thermal transport in these materials is more akin to a super-diffusive heat flow, and necessitates the need for processes beyond Brownian motion to capture this heavy tailed behavior. In this context, we propose the use of a well-defined Lévy process, the so-called relativistic stable process to better model the observed phenomenon. This process captures the observed heat dynamics at short length-time scales and is also closely related to the relativistic Schrödinger operator. In addition, it serves as a good candidate for explaining the usual diffusive nature of heat flow under large length-time regimes. The goal is to verify our model against experimental data, retrieve the best parameters of the process and discuss their connections to material thermal properties.

4. Bond-pricing under partial information: We study an information asymmetry problem in a bond market. Especially we derive bond price dynamics of traders with different levels of information. We allow all information processes as well as the short rate to have jumps in their sample paths, thus representing more dramatic movements. In addition we allow the short rate to be modulated by all information processes in addition to having instantaneous feedbacks from the current levels of itself. A fully informed trader observes all information which affects the bond price while a partially informed trader observes only a part of it. We first obtain the bond price dynamic under the full information, and also derive the bond price of the partially informed trader using Bayesian filtering method. The key step is to perform a change of measure so that the dynamic under the new measure becomes computationally efficient.