DIGITAL HYDRAULICS IN ELECTRIC HYBRID VEHICLES TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY AND BATTERY USE

2020-07-31T19:19:41Z (GMT) by Jorge Leon Quiroga
The transportation sector consumes around 70% of all petroleum in the US. In recent years, there have been improvements in the efficiency of the vehicles, and hybrid techniques that have been used to improve efficiency for conventional combustion vehicles. Hydraulic systems have been used as an alternative to conventional electric regenerative systems with good results. It has been proven that hydraulic systems can improve energy consumption in conventional combustion vehicles and in refuse collection vehicles. The control strategy has a large impact on the performance of the system and studies have shown the control strategy selection should be optimized and selected based on application. The performance of a hydraulic accumulator was compared with the performance of a set of ultracapacitors with the same energy storage capacity. The energy efficiency for the ultracapacitor was around 79% and the energy efficiency of the hydraulic accumulator was 87.7%. The power/mass ratio in the set of ultracapacitors was 2.21 kW/kg and 2.69 kW/kg in the hydraulic accumulator. The cost/power ratio is 217 US$/kW in the ultracapacitors and 75 US$/kW in the hydraulic accumulator. Based on these results, the hydraulic accumulator was selected as the energy storage device for the system. A testbench was designed, modeled, implemented to test the energy storage system in different conditions of operation. The experimental results of the testbench show how system can be actively controlled for different operating conditions. The operating conditions in the system can be adjusted by changing the number of rheostats connected to the electric generator. Different variables in the system were measured such as the angular shaft speed in the hydraulic pump, the torque and speed in the hydraulic motor, the pressure in the system, the flow rate, and the current and voltage in the electric generator. The control algorithm was successfully implemented, the results for the pressure in the system and the angular speed in the electric generator show how the control system can follow a desired reference value. Two different controllers were implemented: one controller for the pressure in the system, and one controller for the speed.