Design of a Closed Loop System for Glaucoma Treatment including Measurement of Intraocular Pressure and Therapeutic Stimulation of the Eye
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Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide effecting more than 2.7 million people in the U.S alone. Treatments exist in the form of both pharmaceutical and surgical options, but often do not provide the desired efficacy. For example, the failure rate of a trabeculectomy procedure is 39% within 5 years. Additionally, none of the current glaucoma treatments allow for closed loop monitoring of pressure, therefore requiring more frequent doctor visits. Glaucoma management can be improved through the use of a closed loop application of electroceutical treatment. The goal is to develop an implantable device that will be inserted into the eye to monitor intraocular pressure (IOP) and provide responsive therapeutic stimulation to the eye. I designed a discrete pressure monitoring system that interacts with a bare die piezoresistive pressure sensor. The system is based on a Wheatstone bridge design which translates the input resistances of the pressure sensor into a voltage output. This system has an average accuracy of 0.53 mmHg and draws 295 µW of power. I then combined this pressure system with data processing code and Howland current pump stimulation circuitry. This simulation system can output up to 1.05 mA of current for electroceutical intraocular stimulation to lower IOP. Future work will involve miniaturizing the circuitries in the form of an ASIC and packaging the entire system into an ocular implant. This implant can wirelessly monitor IOP and provide therapeutic stimulation to lower IOP. A reliable, closed loop method of lowering IOP would greatly benefit the ever-growing population affected by glaucoma.