Exploration of Energy Efficient Hardware and Algorithms for Deep Learning
2019-05-14T17:14:31Z (GMT) by
Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have emerged as the state-of-the-art technique in a wide range of machine learning tasks for analytics and computer vision in the next generation of embedded (mobile, IoT, wearable) devices. Despite their success, they suffer from high energy requirements both in inference and training. In recent years, the inherent error resiliency of DNNs has been exploited by introducing approximations at either the algorithmic or the hardware levels (individually) to obtain energy savings while incurring tolerable accuracy degradation. We perform a comprehensive analysis to determine the effectiveness of cross-layer approximations for the energy-efficient realization of large-scale DNNs. Our experiments on recognition benchmarks show that cross-layer approximation provides substantial improvements in energy efficiency for different accuracy/quality requirements. Furthermore, we propose a synergistic framework for combining the approximation techniques.
To reduce the training complexity of Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNN), we replace certain weight kernels of convolutional layers with Gabor filters. The convolutional layers use the Gabor filters as fixed weight kernels, which extracts intrinsic features, with regular trainable weight kernels. This combination creates a balanced system that gives better training performance in terms of energy and time, compared to the standalone Deep CNN (without any Gabor kernels), in exchange for tolerable accuracy degradation. We also explore an efficient training methodology and incrementally growing a DCNN to allow new classes to be learned while sharing part of the base network. Our approach is an end-to-end learning framework, where we focus on reducing the incremental training complexity while achieving accuracy close to the upper-bound without using any of the old training samples. We have also explored spiking neural networks for energy-efficiency. Training of deep spiking neural networks from direct spike inputs is difficult since its temporal dynamics are not well suited for standard supervision based training algorithms used to train DNNs. We propose a spike-based backpropagation training methodology for state-of-the-art deep Spiking Neural Network (SNN) architectures. This methodology enables real-time training in deep SNNs while achieving comparable inference accuracies on standard image recognition tasks.