INVESTIGATION OF THE PROTONATION SITES IN POLYFUNCTIONAL ANALYTES UPON ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE IONIZATION IN MASS SPECTROMETRY AND STUDIES OF THE REACTIVITIES OF RADICALS IN THE GAS PHASE AND SOLUTION
High resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) coupled with various separation techniques, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC), is widely used to analyze mixtures of unknown organic compounds. In a mass spectrometric analysis, analytes of interest are at first transferred into the gas phase, ionized (protonated or deprotonated) and introduced into the instrument. Tandem mass spectrometric experiments may then be used to gain insights into structure and reactivity of the analyte ions in the gas phase. The tandem mass spectral data are often compared to those reported in external databases. However, the tandem mass spectra obtained for protonated analytes may be markedly different from those in external databases because protonation site manifested during a mass spectrometric experiment can be affected by the ionization technique, ionization solvents and condition of the ion source. This thesis focuses on investigating the effects of instrumental conditions and analyte concentrations on the protonation sites of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Reactivities of radical species were also investigated. A modified bracketing method was developed and proton affinities of a series of mono- and biradicals of pyridine were measured. In another study, a para-benzyne analog was generated in both solution and the gas phase and its reactivities towards various neutral reagents in the gas phase were compared to those in solution.
Chapter 2 discusses the fundamental aspects of the instruments used in this research. In chapter 3, the effects of residual moisture in linear quadrupole ion trap on the protonation sites of 4-aminobenzoic acid are considered. Chapter 4 focuses on the use of gas-phase ion-molecule reactions with trimethoxymethylsilane (TMMS) for the identification of the protonation sites of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Further, the effects of analyte concentration on the protonation sites of 4-aminobenzoic acid are considered. Chapter 5 introduces a modified bracketing method for the experimental determination of proton affinities of a series of pyridine-based mono- and biradicals. In chapter 6, successful generation of para-benzynes in solution is discussed. The reactivity of a para-benzyne analog, 1,4-didehydrophenazine, is compared to its reactivity in the gas phase.