Investigating Stability in Amorphous Solid Dispersions: A Study of the Physical and Chemical Stability of Two Salt Forms of Thiamine and the Physical Stability of Citric Acid
thesisposted on 03.01.2019, 18:24 by Seda Tuncil
The majority of water soluble vitamin and organic acid food additives are distributed in their crystalline forms. However, when they are combined with water and other food ingredients and then exposed to a variety of unit operations, there is potential to solidify these initially crystalline ingredients in the amorphous state. Amorphous solids are generally less chemically and physically stable than their crystalline counterparts. To ensure nutrient delivery to the consumer and fulfill labeling laws, deterioration of nutrients due to unintentional amorphization is undesirable. Additionally, the potential for recrystallization of an amorphous ingredient may alter texture and redistribute water. Hence, solid state form is a critical factor dictating the stability of food formulations. Building on earlier work from my M.S. degree that demonstrated thiamine chloride hydrochloride could solidify in the amorphous state in the presence of a variety of polymers (Arioglu-Tuncil et al., 2017), a major goal of this study was to develop a comprehensive understanding of the physical and chemical stability of amorphous forms of two thiamine salts, thiamine chloride hydrochloride (TClHCl) and thiamine mononitrate (TMN), in comparison to their crystalline counterparts and each other. The objectives for this part of the work were to investigate amorphization/recrystallization tendencies of TMN and TClHCl in solid dispersions, as well as chemical stability of thiamine in the solid dispersions to understand the impact of vitamin form, physical state (amorphous vs. crystalline), polymer type and features (Tg, hygroscopicity, and ability for intermolecular interactions), storage conditions, proportion of vitamin to polymer,and pre-lyophilized solution pHs on thiamine degradation and the physical stability of dispersions. Thiamine degraded more when in the amorphous form compared to in the crystalline state. Additionally, polymer type and vitamin proportion influenced thiamine degradation, where thiamine degraded more when it was present in lower concentrations (in dispersions that had higher Tgs), and it was chemically more stable when a polymer with greater intermolecular interactions with the vitamin was used. As storage RH increased, variably hygroscopicities of the polymers resulted in different thiamine degradation rates. The pre-lyophilization pHs of the solutions had a significant impact on thiamine stability in the solid dispersions. Similar to thiamine salts, citric acid is a commonly used food ingredient with a high crystallization tendency. Following similar experimental designs for documenting the recrystallization tendencies of citric acid in amorphous solid dispersions to those used in the thiamine studies, hydrogen bonding and/or ionic interactions between polymer and citric acid were found to be the main stabilizing factor for delaying recrystallization, more than polymer Tg and hygroscopicity. The findings of this dissertation provide a powerful prediction approach to physically and chemically stabilize the small compounds in the complex food matrices for the production of high quality food products and ensuring nutrient delivery to target populations.