MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF HIGHWAY EMISSIONS DISPERSION DUE TO NOISE BARRIER SHAPE EFFECTS AND TRAFFIC FLOW UNDER DIFFERENT INFLOW CONDITIONS
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A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to simulate the distribution of automobile emissions on and near a highway. A variety of k-ε turbulence models were adopted to simulate the turbulence flow, and a non-reaction species model was coupled to simulate the dispersion of emissions. The models were first validated by comparing velocity profiles and normalized emission concentration with wind tunnel experiments, and good agreement was observed. Next, further simulation and analysis revealed that T-shaped noise barriers could reduce more emissions concentration in downstream areas than rectangular noise barriers; however, the noise barrier shape effects on the dispersion of emissions were also influenced by inflow conditions. Thirdly, the traffic flow conditions on the highway made a difference to the dispersion of emissions. Automobile wakes not only existed behind vehicles but also induced turbulence on adjacent lanes, causing more emissions on the highway. Low traffic speed, such as congestion, would result in more emissions remaining on the highway as well. At last, vehicle body shapes modified the flow patterns by their slant angles and heights. Vehicles with slant angles on both front and rear sides had the least concentration of emissions at the center of the highway.