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Mechanistic Analysis of Sodiation in Electrodes
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The single particle model was extended to include electrode and particle volume expansion effects observed in high capacity alloying electrodes. The model was used to predict voltage profiles in sodium ion batteries with tin and tin-phosphide negative electrodes. It was seen that the profiles predicted by the modified model were significantly better than the classical model. A parametric study was done to understand the impact of properties such as particle radius, diffusivity, reaction rate etc on the performance of the electrode. The model was also modified for incorporating particles having a cylindrical morphology. For the same material properties, it was seen that cylindrical particles outperform spherical particles for large L/R values in the cylinder due to the diffusion limitations at low L/R ratios. A lattice spring-based degradation model was used to observe crack formation and creep relaxation within the particle. It was observed that the fraction of broken bonds increases with an increase in strain rate. At low strain rates, it was seen that there was a significant expansion in particle volumes due to creep deformation. This expansion helped release particle stresses subsequently reducing the amount of fracture.