NONLINEAR ULTRAFAST-LASER SPECTROSCOPY OF GAS-PHASE SPECIES AND TEMPERATURE IN HIGH-PRESSURE REACTING FLOWS
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Ultrafast laser-based diagnostic techniques are powerful tools for the detailed understanding of highly dynamic combustion chemistry and physics. The ultrashort pulses provide unprecedented temporal resolution along with high peak power for broad spectral range−ideal for nonlinear signal generation at high repetition rate−with applications including next-generation combustors for gas turbines, plasma-assisted combustion, hypersonic flows and rotating detonation engines. The current work focuses on advancing (i) femtosecond (fs) two-photon laser-induced fluorescence, and (ii) hybrid femtosecond/picosecond vibrational and rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs/ps RCARS and VCARS) to higher pressures for the first time.
Quantitative single-laser-shot kHz-rate concentration measurements of key atomic (O-atom) and molecular (CO) species is presented using femtosecond two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (TP-LIF) for a range of equivalence ratios and pressures in diffusion flames. A multitude of signal-interfering sources and loss mechanisms−relevant to high-pressure fs TP-LIF applications−are also quantified up to 20 atm to ensure high accuracy. The pressure scaling of interferences take into account degradation, attenuation and wave-front distortion of the excitation laser pulse; collisional quenching and pressure dependent transition line-broadening and shifting; photolytic interferences; multi-photon ionization; stimulated emission; and radiation trapping.
Hybrid fs/ps VCARS of N2 is reported for interference-free temperature measurement at 1300-2300 K in high-pressure, laminar diffusion flames up to 10 atm. A time asymmetric probe pulse allowed for detection of spectrally resolved CARS signals at probe delays as early as ~200-300 fs while being independent of collisions for the full range of pressures and temperatures. Limits of collisional independence, accuracy and precision of the measurement is explored at various probe-pulse delays, pressures and temperatures.
Additionally, a novel all diode-pumped Nd:YAG amplifier design is presented for generation of time-synchronized ps-probe pulses for hybrid fs/ps RCARS of N2. High-energy, nearly transform-limited, single-mode, chirp-free ps probe-pulses are generated at variable pulsewidths. The detailed architecture and characterization of the laser is presented. kHz-rate RCARS thermometry is presented up to 2400 K. Excellent spatial, spectral, and temporal beam quality allowed for fitting the theoretical spectra with a simple Gaussian model for the probe pulse with temperature accuracies of 1-2%.