PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF INVASIVE SILVER CARP (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) FISH NUGGETS
Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) are an underutilized, invasive fish threatening native species throughout major water systems in the United States. The goal of this research was to use silver carp meat to create a value-added product, to analyze the changes in physicochemical structure and consumer liking over time, and to evaluate the benefits of adding soy, pea, and a combination of soy and pea protein isolates to the formulations. Fish nuggets were prepared from minced meat in four treatments consisting of 3% soy protein isolate (SPI), 3% pea protein isolate (PPI), a combination of 1.5% SPI and 1.5% PPI, and a control without plant protein isolate. Nuggets from each treatment were stored frozen for 1.5, 8.5, and 13.5 weeks. Proximate composition, pH, cook loss, textural hardness, expressible moisture, color, microbial counts and lipid oxidation were evaluated. Sensory acceptability was also evaluated for each frozen storage time period and treatment. A descriptive (QDA™) trained sensory panel was also conducted on all treatments independent of the storage testing. Results showed that lipid oxidation and textural hardness significantly (P < 0.05) increased with frozen storage time. PPI had significantly lower expressible moisture compared to the control at week 1.5, but there were no statistically significant differences between treatments at weeks 8.5 and 13.5. Similarly, formulations with PPI improved (p<0.05) cook loss for week 1.5, but not week 8.5 or 13.5. Overall, sensory acceptability did not change (P > 0.05), with the exception of decreased degree of liking scores for SPI aroma (p=0.03) and flavor (p=0.03)) during the frozen storage period; all degree of liking scores remained above 6.5 throughout analysis, indicating that consumers’ acceptability of the sample treatments over time despite the changes in physicochemical structure. The descriptive panel created an attribute lexicon for the aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel of the fish nuggets and did not find significant differences in intensities for those attributes between the treatments. Although there were measurable changes in oxidation, texture, expressible moisture, and cook loss over 13.5 weeks, these changes did not impact sensory acceptance. The addition of protein isolates improved water holding capacity initially but did not maintain those benefits over extended shelf life and had little impact on consumer liking during any time period. Overall, this study demonstrated that value-added products such as silver carp nuggets can be created using an otherwise under-utilized fish. The fish nuggets had high sensory acceptability, and the addition of protein isolates did not significantly improve their sensory characteristics; therefore, silver carp nuggets can be formulated without the need of additional protein additives .