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Parallel Computational Methods for Model-based Tomographic Reconstruction and Coherent Imaging

thesis
posted on 04.05.2020 by Venkatesh Sridhar
Non-destructive imaging modalities for evaluating the internal properties of materials can be formulated as physics-driven inverse problems. Model-based Iterative reconstruction (MBIR) methods that integrate a forward model of the imaging system and a prior model of the object being imaged can provide superior reconstruction quality relative to conventional methods. However, making MBIR feasible for practical applications faces two key challenges. First, we require efficient computational methods for MBIR that allow large-scale reconstructions in real-time. Second, we must develop forward models that accurately capture the physics and geometry of the imaging system, and, support the use of advanced denoisers that enhance image quality as prior models.

This thesis attempts to address the aforementioned challenges and is divided into three main chapters, each corresponding to a different inverse imaging application.

In the first chapter of this thesis, we propose a novel 4D model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) algorithm for low-angle coherent-scatter X-ray Diffraction (XRD) tomography that can substantially increase the SNR. Our forward model is based on a Poisson photon counting model that incorporates a spatial point-spread function, detector energy response and energy-dependent attenuation correction. Our prior model uses a Markov random field (MRF) together with a reduced spectral bases set determined using non-negative matrix factorization. Our algorithm efficiently computes the Bayesian estimate by exploiting the sparsity of the measurement data. We demonstrate the ability of our method to achieve sufficient spatial resolution from sparse photon-starved measurements and also discriminate between materials of similar densities with real datasets.

In the second chapter of this thesis, we propose a multi-agent consensus equilibrium (MACE) algorithm for distributing both the computation and memory of
MBIR for Computed Tomographic (CT) reconstruction across a large number of parallel nodes. In MACE, each node stores only a sparse subset of views and a small portion of the system matrix, and each parallel node performs a local sparse-view reconstruction, which based on repeated feedback from other nodes, converges to the global optimum. Our distributed approach can also incorporate advanced denoisers as priors to enhance reconstruction quality. In this case, we obtain a parallel solution to the serial framework of Plug-n-play (PnP) priors, which we call MACE-PnP. In order to make MACE practical, we introduce a partial update method that eliminates nested iterations and prove that it converges to the same global solution. Finally, we validate our approach on a distributed memory system with real CT data. We also demonstrate an implementation of our approach on a massive supercomputer that can perform large-scale reconstruction in real-time.

In the third chapter of this thesis, we propose a method that makes MBIR feasible for real-time single-shot holographic imaging through deep turbulence. Our method uses surrogate optimization techniques to simplify and speedup the reflectance and phase-error updates in MBIR. Further, our method accelerates computation of the surrogate-updates by leveraging cache-prefetching and SIMD vector processing units on a single CPU core. We analyze the convergence and real CPU time of our method using simulated datasets, and demonstrate its dramatic speedup over the original MBIR approach.

History

Degree Type

Doctor of Philosophy

Department

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Campus location

West Lafayette

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee Chair

Prof Charles A. Bouman

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee co-chair

Prof Gregery T. Buzzard

Additional Committee Member 2

Prof Samuel P. Midkiff

Additional Committee Member 3

Prof Mark R. Bell

Additional Committee Member 4

Prof Mary Comer

Licence

Exports