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Training Spiking Neural Networks for Energy-Efficient Neuromorphic Computing

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thesis
posted on 06.12.2019 by Gopalakrishnan Srinivasan

Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs), widely known as the third generation of artificial neural networks, offer a promising solution to approaching the brains' processing capability for cognitive tasks. With more biologically realistic perspective on input processing, SNN performs neural computations using spikes in an event-driven manner. The asynchronous spike-based computing capability can be exploited to achieve improved energy efficiency in neuromorphic hardware. Furthermore, SNN, on account of spike-based processing, can be trained in an unsupervised manner using Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP). STDP-based learning rules modulate the strength of a multi-bit synapse based on the correlation between the spike times of the input and output neurons. In order to achieve plasticity with compressed synaptic memory, stochastic binary synapse is proposed where spike timing information is embedded in the synaptic switching probability. A bio-plausible probabilistic-STDP learning rule consistent with Hebbian learning theory is proposed to train a network of binary as well as quaternary synapses. In addition, hybrid probabilistic-STDP learning rule incorporating Hebbian and anti-Hebbian mechanisms is proposed to enhance the learnt representations of the stochastic SNN. The efficacy of the presented learning rules are demonstrated for feed-forward fully-connected and residual convolutional SNNs on the MNIST and the CIFAR-10 datasets.

STDP-based learning is limited to shallow SNNs (<5 layers) yielding lower than acceptable accuracy on complex datasets. This thesis proposes block-wise complexity-aware training algorithm, referred to as BlocTrain, for incrementally training deep SNNs with reduced memory requirements using spike-based backpropagation through time. The deep network is divided into blocks, where each block consists of few convolutional layers followed by an auxiliary classifier. The blocks are trained sequentially using local errors from the respective auxiliary classifiers. Also, the deeper blocks are trained only on the hard classes determined using the class-wise accuracy obtained from the classifier of previously trained blocks. Thus, BlocTrain improves the training time and computational efficiency with increasing block depth. In addition, higher computational efficiency is obtained during inference by exiting early for easy class instances and activating the deeper blocks only for hard class instances. The ability of BlocTrain to provide improved accuracy as well as higher training and inference efficiency compared to end-to-end approaches is demonstrated for deep SNNs (up to 11 layers) on the CIFAR-10 and the CIFAR-100 datasets.

Feed-forward SNNs are typically used for static image recognition while recurrent Liquid State Machines (LSMs) have been shown to encode time-varying speech data. Liquid-SNN, consisting of input neurons sparsely connected by plastic synapses to randomly interlinked reservoir of spiking neurons (or liquid), is proposed for unsupervised speech and image recognition. The strength of the synapses interconnecting the input and liquid are trained using STDP, which makes it possible to infer the class of a test pattern without a readout layer typical in standard LSMs. The Liquid-SNN suffers from scalability challenges due to the need to primarily increase the number of neurons to enhance the accuracy. SpiLinC, composed of an ensemble of multiple liquids, where each liquid is trained on a unique input segment, is proposed as a scalable model to achieve improved accuracy. SpiLinC recognizes a test pattern by combining the spiking activity of the individual liquids, each of which identifies unique input features. As a result, SpiLinC offers comparable accuracy to Liquid-SNN with added synaptic sparsity and faster training convergence, which is validated on the digit subset of TI46 speech corpus and the MNIST dataset.

History

Degree Type

Doctor of Philosophy

Department

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Campus location

West Lafayette

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee Chair

Kaushik Roy

Additional Committee Member 2

Anand Raghunathan

Additional Committee Member 3

Byunghoo Jung

Additional Committee Member 4

Vijay Raghunathan

Licence

Exports